What is radioactive isotope dating
Within the nucleus, we find neutrons and protons; but for now, let's just focus on the neutrons.These neutrons can become unstable, and when they do, they release energy and undergo decay. Radioactivity occurs when the nucleus contains an excess amount of neutrons.
Each element is made up of atoms, and within each atom is a central particle called a nucleus.These are both isotopes of the element carbon present in a constant ratio while an organism is living; however, once an organism dies, the ratio of carbon-14 decreases as the isotope deteriorates.Radiocarbon dating can only be used to date items back to as far as about 50,000 years old.An isotope is a variation of an element based upon the number of neutrons.The disintegration of the neutrons within the atom of the element's nucleus is what scientists call radioactivity.When an atom varies in the number of neutrons, the variation is called an isotope. During radioactivity, the unstable isotope breaks down and changes into a different substance.
A new, more stable isotope, called the decay or daughter product, takes its place.
Just as in the example with uranium, scientists are able to determine the age of a sample by using the ratios of the daughter product compared to the parent.
Also, when dating with carbon-14, scientists compare the amount of carbon-14 to carbon -12.
This means that after approximately 4.5 billion years, half of an original sample containing this isotope will decay into its decay product, forming the new isotope, Pb 206 (lead 206).
If another 4.5 billion years were to pass, then half of the remaining half of uranium-238 would also decay, leaving 25% uranium to 75% lead.
(The answer's included in the summary below.) Since all living things contain carbon, carbon-14 is a common radioisotope used primarily to date items that were once living.