Side effects of sedating
When the surgery is complete, the anesthesia drugs are discontinued, and you gradually wake up, usually in the operating recovery room.
The first such drug, chlordiazepoxide (Librium), was discovered accidentally by Leo Sternbach in 1955, and made available in 1960 by Hoffmann–La Roche, which, since 1963, has also marketed the benzodiazepine diazepam (Valium).Also, the body’s response to the pain would also prohibit many types of surgery from being done.Surgical anesthesia is a depth of anesthesia that relaxes the muscles along with loss of sensation and consciousness to a level where surgery can be performed.The type of anesthesia used depends on: • what kind of surgery the patient is having • how long the surgery will last • location of the surgery (where in the body) • how intricate the surgery will be • the age and overall health of the patient • the anesthesiologist’s personal expertise, judgment and preference.The goals of anesthesia are: • loss of consciousness • to block the patient’s memory of the procedure • to maintain the body’s physiologic stability • to prevent or reduce pain • to relax the skeletal muscles • to stop the body’s normal reflexes Balanced anesthesia uses a combination of anesthetic agents that enhances the desired effects and limits the undesired side effects.Level 2 (moderate sedation) – consciousness is reduced, but the patient responds to verbal commands.
He can breathe on his own and heart function is maintained without help.
Some of the drugs used to induce anesthesia can be given in a lesser amount to produce sedation.
Level 1 (minimal sedation) – the patient is able to maintain normal breathing and heart function is normal.
Level 4 (general anesthesia) – The patient loses consciousness and can’t be aroused even with painful stimuli. The muscle function is depressed and heart function may be impaired.
General anesthesia consists of 4 stages; each stage causes changes in breathing, muscle tone, and reflexes. During surgery, the patient proceeds through the first 3 stages: Stage I – Analgesia Stage II – Excitement Stage III – Surgical anesthesia (which has 4 planes) Stage IV – Medullary depression Inhalation agents are gases or vapors that work mainly by depressing the central nervous system.
There are several kinds of regional anesthesia; the two most common are spinal anesthesia and epidural anesthesia.