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In one study, James Kulik and Heike Mahler (1989) found that hospital patients waiting for open-heart surgery preferred to have as roommates other patients who were post-operative rather than pre-operative, presumably because they were in a position to provide information about the experience.Patients in a second study who had been assigned post-operative rather than pre-operative roommates became less anxious about the experience and were later quicker to recover from the surgery (Kulik et al., 1996).
The Agony of Loneliness -Studies show that shy people evaluate themselves negatively, expect to fail in their social encounters, and blame themselves when they do.Yacof Rofe proposed a simple answer: utility -Rofé argued that stress increases the desire to affiliate only when being with others is seen as useful in reducing the negative impact of the stressful situation.- Research suggests that people facing an imminent threat seek each other out in order to gain cognitive clarity about the danger they are in.-the loneliest groups in American society are adolescents and young adults 18 to 30 years old.In fact, loneliness seems to decline over the course of adulthood—at least until health problems in old age limit social activities The Initial Attraction Affiliation is a necessary first step in the formation of a social relationship.These results demonstrate that the mere exposure effect can influence us without our awareness Study: researchers selected four women who looked like typical students to be confederates in this study.
One had a very easy job: She had her picture taken.
-need for affiliation: the desire to establish and maintain many rewarding interpersonal relationships.
Bibb Latané and Carol Werner (1978) found that laboratory rats were more likely to approach others of their species after a period of isolation and were less likely to approach others after prolonged contact.
-According to one classic perspective, people are attracted to those with whom they can have a relationship that is rewarding The rewards may be direct, as when people provide us with attention, support, money, status, information, and other valuable commodities.
Or the rewards may be indirect, as when it feels good to be with someone who is beautiful, smart, or funny, or who happens to be in our presence when times are good.
-the more people are exposed to a novel stimulus, the more they come to like it - Robert Zajonc (1968) found that the more often people saw a novel stimulus—whether it was a foreign word, a geometric form, or a human face—the more they came to like it.