is a dietary supplement composed of various nutrients, polyphenols and alkaloids that have free radical scavenging capacity, as well as other chemical constituents that possess anti-inflammatory, antitumor, anti-stress, antioxidant, immunomodulatory, and rejuvenating properties.The mechanism of action for these properties are not fully understood. The findings presented in this review are very encouraging and indicate that this herb should be studied more extensively to confirm these results and to reveal other potential therapeutic effects.
Standard chemical mutagenesis of the organism has had only limited success, in part because chlamydiae cannot be grown axenically to support the normal methods of producing clonal populations of mutants.Abbreviations: distal early (DE), distal late (DL), intermediate mesoderm (IM), proximal convoluted tubule (PCT), pronephric duct (PD), proximal straight tubule (PST), retinoic acid (RA).[Figure adapted from [ is necessary to promote PST and CS formation and inhibit PCT fates during segment patterning in the zebrafish pronephros.Indeed, this organism is now considered to be the most common sexually transmitted bacterial pathogen in the United States, with more than a million new such infections reported annually to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (1).Significantly, primary genital infection with this organism often engenders severe sequelae, including fertility problems in women, arthritis in both genders, and others (2, 3).Current data indicate that these sequelae involve organisms in an unusual state designated persistence, in which metabolic and genetic activity are modified to yield a largely antimicrobial-refractory organism (3, 4).
The underlying damage caused by both primary and persistent chlamydial infections results from the severe inflammation they elicit, and an important advance in the approach to understanding how these pathogens engender that inflammatory process is provided in this issue by Song et al.
[Figure adapted from Reference [ expression is proposed to promote DL formation and inhibit PST fates during proximodistal segment patterning.
These activities act in opposition to RA signaling, which promotes PCT and PST formation and has been speculated to inhibit distal fates.
This system also displays relatively low efficiency, and clonal populations of transformants can be produced only by several sequential passages of the organism under antibiotic selection.
Regardless, this procedure is workable on a routine basis, and it is this method for genetic manipulation of possess a 7.5-kbp plasmid that specifies eight open reading frames for proteins plus noncoding RNAs (12, 13).
Development of a system for genetic manipulation of the organism thus has been a major goal for decades in the has been that getting modifying nucleic acid constructs to the organisms required that they be inserted somehow into the metabolically inactive extracellular form of the organism, the elementary body, through its extremely durable cell wall, or into metabolically active chlamydiae within host cytoplasmic inclusions; this latter route involves the daunting task of getting any modifying construct across the eukaryotic host cell membrane, the inclusion membrane, and finally across the membrane and minimal cell wall of the metabolically active form of , the reticulate body.